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Urology, Nephrology and Andrology International

Volume  7, Issue 1, January-June 2022, Pages 15-22


Original Article

Metabolic Evaluation of Patients with Nephrolithiasis: A Prospective Observational Study from a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India
SML Prakash Babu1, Dhruva G Prakash2, Sangle Ameya Rangnath
Associate Professor, 2,3Senior Resident, Department of Urology, MS Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore 560054, Karnataka, India
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Objective: To evaluate patients with bilateral, multiple, staghorn and
recurrent renal stones for metabolic diseases in Karnataka region.
Methods: All the patients admitted with bilateral, multiple, staghorn and
recurrent renal stones and peadiatiric stones on initial evalution in MS Ramaiah
hospital were included in the study after obtaining written informed consent.
Secondary stones, Single, unilateral renal or ureteric stones on first presentation
in adults were excluded.Patient assessment included variables such as age,
sex, BMI, dietary pattern, family history, past history, average water intake,
alcohol intake and composition of stone. Laboratory investigations included
urine routine & microscopy, urine culture, 24 hrs urine analyses for calcium,
phosphorous, uric acid, magnesium, oxalate and citrate, serum calcium,
phosphorous, uric acid, creatinine, random blood sugar (RBS) and BUN.
Imaging was done (USG of abdomen pelvis, NCCT KUB and contrast studies)
when indicated. All patients underwent routine pre-operative investigations for
treatment of stones with routine testing for s.calcium, phosphrous and uric acid
and were repeated only if found to be elevated. After stone had been treated,
they underwent urine analyses for metabolic disorder twice on consecutive

Corresponding Author : Sangle Ameya Rangnath