Microbial Forensics (MF) is an interdisciplinary branch utilized in various microbiological methods to study elaborately various pieces of evidence involved in criminal cases focusing on forensic attribution, bioterrorism, frauds, outbreaks, toxin, or biological agent release. Microbial forensic investigations characterize nonbiological and biological (toxins, fungi, bacteria, and viruses) evidence. Recently DNA sequencing and next-generation sequencing technology have given us the opportunity with advance in genetics and molecular biology and have been applied in fields including disease diagnosis in forensics. Metagenomics is a culture-independent method to sequence microbial DNA which is collected from mixed community samples and environment. Several studies shows applications for the analysis of the metagenomic sample for investigations in forensic science i.e., cause of death, detect time since death, biological fluid characterization, outbreak investigations, environmental samples and bio-surveillance. The major microbial diversity which is unaware of and so the present database does not accurately show the diversity which exists and thus various programs have started that sequence the reference genomes. Application of bioinformatics deals with the analysis of biological data and phylogenetic reconstruction. The analysis and interpretation of microbial forensic science data need to compare the data with a complete reference genetic database. Proper training and education in this field are essential for the scientists of the next generation to protect society from various causative harm which results from the act of biocrime and bioterrorism. Thus the development of various resources and infrastructure related to education must be aimed at practitioners of next-generation, policymakers, researchers and communities related to enforcement of the law. key message: This review provides insight into microbial forensic and investigations based on next-generation sequencing technology, metagenomics, and bioinformatics. With adequate training and education in this field, scientists can protect the society from various harms.
: Amit Roy