Globally, an estimated 422 million adults are living with diabetes mellitus, according to the latest 2016 data from the World Health Organization. Diabetes is a group of disorder characterized by high blood glucose level. Constant high level of blood glucose may lead to many life-threatening complications viz, cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes. The treatment strategy is mainly targeted to lower blood glucose level by one or other means. This can be achieved by either slowing down the rate by which glucose enters into the bloodstream (Biguanides: Metformin; α-Glucosidase inhibitor: Acarbose etc) or by stimulating body’s ability to utilize the glucose present in the blood by the cells (Sulfonylureas: Chlorpropamide; Thiazolidinediones: Pioglitazone; GLP-1 analogue; DPP 4 inhibitors; Exenatide). This review focuses on conventional antidiabetics currently used and drawbacks associated with it and newer oral hypoglycemic agents with their advantages over the conventional ones.
: Dulal Ch. Roy