It is considered that cancer‘s physio-pathology is fully based on 6 basic hallmarks along with two emerging hallmarks. N.B. Recognizing, understanding and widely accepting these concepts will increasingly affect the development of new means to treat cancer.Two emerging hallmarks are being updated which include; “development of genomic instability” and “inflammatory state of premalignant and frankly malignant lesions” Objectives to explain efficacy and importance of these hallmarks are: 1) Sustaining proliferative signaling: Most fundamental trait of cancer cells involve their ability to sustain chronic proliferation. Enabling signals are conveyed by growth factors that bind cell surface receptors, typically having tyrosine kinase domains. Cancer cells can acquire the capability to sustain proliferating signalling in a number of alternative ways. 2) Evading Growth Suppressors: Dozens of tumor suppressors that operate in various ways to limit cell growth and proliferation have been discovered through their characteristic inactivation in one or another form. 3) Resisting Cell Death: The apoptotic machinery is composed of both upstream regulators and downstream effector components. 4) Enabling Replicative Immortality: Non-cancer cells die after a certain number of divisions. Cancer cells escape this limit and are apparently capable of indefinite growth and division (immortality). 5) Inducing Angiogenesis: Angiogenesis is an important hallmark based on inducers amd inhibitors. Inducers include vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and acetic and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF 1/2), which bind to transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors displayed on endothelial cells. 6) Activating Invasion and Metastasis: Cancer cells can break away from their site or organ of origin to invade surrounding tissue and spread (metastasize) to distant body parts.The newly formed metastasis arise as amalgams of cancer cells and normal supporting cells conscripted from the host tissue.
: Aman Kailash Setiya