Esophageal and gastric varices are one among many complications of Cirrhosis of liver. It occurs in 1/3rd of patients with cirrhosis. First bleeding episode has mortality of 30–50%. Bleeding varices are due to structural changes in the liver from cirrhosis. Esophageal varices are a complex tortuous veins at the lower end of the esophagus, enlarged and swelled due to portal hypertension. Gastric varices are located in the upper portion (cardiac and fundus) of the stomach. Manifestations include hematemesis, melena, general deterioration and shock. Patients with varices must undergo screening endoscopy every two years. Management of bleeding varices includes emergency, therapeutic and prophylactic interventions.
Keywords: Esophageal varices; Variceal ligation and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS).
: Seema Varghese