The International Journal of Practical Nursing (IJPN) ISSN 2347-7083 is an international, peer reviewed, scientific, evidence-based journal that seeks to promote the development and exchange of knowledge that is directly relevant to all spheres of nursing and midwifery practice. The mission of the journal is to promote excellence in nursing and health care through the dissemination of evidence-based, peer-reviewed clinical information and original research, discussion of relevant and controversial professional issues, adherence to the standards of journalistic integrity and excellence, and promotion of nursing perspectives to the health care community and the public. The journal also seeks to advance the quality of research by publishing methodological papers introducing or elaborating on analytic techniques, measures, and research methods related to nursing, regardless of where care is provided. This includes - but is not limited to - ambulatory care, community care, family care, home, hospital, practice, primary and secondary, and public health. IJPN endeavors to attract a wide readership that embraces experienced nurses, student nurses and those who support, inform and investigate nursing practice.